Myanmar History

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THE OVERVIEW OF MYANMAR HISTORY

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INDEPENDENT BURMA

The first years of Burmese independence were marked by successive insurgencies by the Red Flag Communists led by Thakin Soe, the White Flag Communists led by Thakin Than Tun, the Yèbaw Hpyu (White-band PVO) led by Bo La Yaung, a member of the Thirty Comrades, army rebels calling themselves the Revolutionary Burma Army (RBA) led by Communist officers Bo Zeya, Bo Yan Aung and Bo Yè Htut — all three of them members of the Thirty Comrades, Arakanese Muslims or the Mujahid, and the Karen National Union (KNU).

THE MON – SHAN – TAI

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THE MILITARY ERA I IN MYANMAR

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THE PYU

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THE MILITARY ERA II IN MYANMAR

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THE PAGAN KINGDOM

The Pagan Kingdom or Pagan Dynasty (849 – 1287) was the first kingdom to unify the regions that would later constitute the modern-day Burma (Myanmar). Pagan’s 250-year rule over the Irrawaddy river basin and its periphery laid the foundation for the ascent of Burmese language and culture, the spread of Burman ethnicity in Upper Burma, and the growth of Theravada Buddhism in Burma and in mainland Southeast Asia. The kingdom fell in 1287 due to Mongol invasions. The collapse was followed by another 250 years of political fragmentation that lasted into the mid-16th century.

THE AVA AND PEGU (c. 1364-1555)

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THE TOUNGOO DYNASTIES IN MYANMAR

The King Mingyinyo founded the First Toungoo Dynasty (1486–1599) at Toungoo, south of Ava, towards the end of the Ava dynasty. After the conquest of Ava by the Shan invaders in 1527 many Burmans migrated to Toungoo which became a new center for Burmese rule.

THE KONBAUNG DYNASTY IN MYANMAR

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THE BRITISH RULES

Britain made Burma a province of India in 1886 with the capital at Rangoon. Traditional Burmese society was drastically altered by the demise of the monarchy and the separation of religion and state. Though war officially ended after only a couple of weeks, resistance continued in northern Burma until 1890

THE WAR WITH BRITAIN

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THE WORLD WAR II AND JAPAN OCCUPATION

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JAPANESE SURRENDER

The surrender of the Japanese brought a military administration to Burma and demands to try Aung San for his involvement in a murder during military operations in 1942. Lord Mountbatten realized that this was an impossibility considering Aung San’s popular appeal. After the war ended, the British Governor, Sir Reginald Dorman-Smith returned.